By N. A. M. Rodger
All through Britain's background, one issue mainly others has decided the destiny of the kingdom: its military. N. A. M. Rodger's definitive account finds how the political and social development of england has been inextricably intertwined with the power - and weak point - of its sea energy, from the determined early campaigns opposed to the Vikings to the defeat of the good Spanish Armada.
Covering coverage, method, ships, recruitment and guns, this can be a very good tapestry of approximately 1,000 years of maritime heritage. No different historian has tested the topic in whatever just like the element came across the following. the result's an exceptional instance of narrative history' Barry Unsworth, Sunday Telegraph
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Additional info for The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain, Volume 1: 660-1649
The French drew up their fleet as a military in 3 divisions, and complex with the galleys skirmishing like cavalry in entrance. Then the wind obtained up, permitting the English ships to sally out and forcing the galleys to withdraw in haste. What English resources we now have, together with the ‘Cowdray engraving' which exhibits this degree of the motion, recommend that Henry's titanic ships the Henry Grace á Dieu and the Mary Rose led the improvement, yet French bills rigidity the contribution of the small ‘rowbarges' which shaped the majority of the English oared warships. overdue within the day the Mary Rose, going approximately directly to the opposite tack, was once stuck via a flaw of wind, stuffed via her open gunports, and sank with the lack of just about all on board. except this dramatic catastrophe, the day was once indecisive and disappointing for either side. French troops have been landed at the Isle of Wight in an endeavour to attract the English fleet out back, yet they have been pushed off via the neighborhood military, and the English fleet remained secure in harbour. 22 not able to strength both a touchdown or a conflict, more and more sickly and missing provides to lie indefinitely within the Solent, d‘Annebault was once compelled to sail at the twenty second. Lord Lisle him with the English fleet, now strengthened by means of ships which were guarding the western Channel, and so they met in short off Shoreham on 15 August. Lisle's fleet used to be additionally geared up in 3 strains, and turns out to were dealt with properly, yet merely the oared vessels on both sides have been heavily engaged. On 2 September Lisle landed close to Tréport and burnt it, yet his fleet used to be already tormented by the plague, which quickly disabled it altogether and compelled him again to Portsmouth. 23 Over that wintry weather, many of the French galleys remained in fee, in accordance with Etaples, to aid the siege of Boulogne. On 18 could 1546 8 of those galleys skirmished with 4 English ships and 4 pinnaces, with the trap of 1 of the French galleys. It was once the final motion of the conflict at sea; by way of June England and France have been at peace. 24 In Scotland there has been little scuffling with in 1545. French ships landed 3,500 males at Dumbarton in July. At concerning the similar time Donald the Black, final Lord of the Isles, invaded eire with a hundred and eighty galleys in an try and get better his lordship. 25 Henry VIII's ships have been absolutely occupied dealing with the French, and as a minimum he didn't regard himself as having any legal responsibility to guard English merchantmen from Scottish cruisers. whilst the boys of Newcastle-on-Tyne complained, they have been bluntly knowledgeable that ‘it have been over burdensome that the king may still set ships to safeguard all elements of the world and continue the slender Seas withal. ’26 It used to be the company of shipowners to guard themselves; it unwell grew to become the majesty of a king to main issue himself with such sordid info. via 1546, although England used to be nonetheless at conflict with Scotland, Henry's technique of prosecuting it have been exhausted. years of battle, plus the arrangements of 1538–42 and the defence of Boulogne, had expense a minimum of �2,135,000, of which �265,000 used to be for the army.